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particle accelerator,apparatus used in nuclear physics to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets.Such machines, popularly called atom smashers, are needed to observe objects as small as the atomic nucleus in studies of its..... Essentially there is no difference between these two manifestations of radioactivity.It is the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation, with a very short wavelength (high frequency)...... Gamma rays result from the transition of nuclei from excited states (higher energy) to their ground state (lowest energy), and their production is analogous to the emission of ordinary light caused by transitions of electrons within the atom (see atomspectrum,arrangement or display of light or other form of radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property.Beams of charged particles can be separated into a spectrum according to mass in a mass spectrometer (see mass spectrograph)...... Gamma decay often accompanies alpha or beta decay and affects neither the atomic number nor the mass number of the nucleus.The nuclei of elements exhibiting radioactivity are unstable and are found to be undergoing continuous disintegration (i.e., gradual breakdown).The disintegration proceeds at a definite rate characteristic of the particular nucleus; that is, each radioactive isotoperadioactive isotopeor radioisotope,natural or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta, or gamma rays until stability is reached...... However, the time of decay of an individual nucleus is unpredictable.neutrino[Ital.,=little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles.The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy..... The electron is immediately ejected from the nucleus, and the net result is an increase of 1 in the atomic number of the nucleus but no change in the mass number.

Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E.

Thus, the net effect of alpha radioactivity is to produce nuclei lighter than those of the original radioactive substance.

For example, in the disintegration, or decay, of uranium-238 by the emission of alpha particles, radioactive thorium (formerly called ionium) is produced.

nucleus,in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom.

The Nature of the Nucleus Composition Atomic nuclei are composed of two types of particles, protons and neutrons, which are collectively known as nucleons......

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